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独立主格结构和 with / without复合结构

一.独立主格结构

1.概念:

充当状语 在句中可以表示时间、原因

条件、方式或伴随情况等。

2.结构:

名词/代词 + 非谓语(doing & todo & done)

形容词&副词

介词短语

 。

形容词&副词&介词短语&状语从句

非谓语动词

逻辑主语

Taking your age into consideration,

You’d better not go hiking.

Your age taken into consideration,

you’d better not go hiking.

(逻主you)

(逻主your age)

(逻辑主语与整句的主语相同)

(Ⅰ) 名词/代词+分词(过去分词done & 现在分词doing)

当分词作状语时,其逻辑主语与句子的主

语不一致时,分词应有自己的逻辑主语,

构成分词的独立结构。一般位于句首,也

可放在句尾;作伴随状语时,常放在句首。

1.________________, they left the meeting – room.(问题解决了)(settle)

2.____________ ,we`ll go there on foot.

(时间允许的话)(permit) (cross)

3.He was lying on the grass,(他的手交叉在手下)

__________________________

This problem settled

Time permitting

his hands crossed under his head.

(Ⅱ)名词/代词 + (being) 形容词

_________________,he had to stay home to look after her.(他妈妈生病了)

2. He entered the house,(他的鼻子冻得通红)

___________________(red)

(Ⅲ)名词/代词+(being) 副词

He put on his socks,_____________.

(反的一面在外面)(out)

His mother (being) ill

his nose red with cold.

wrong side out

(Ⅳ)名词/代词+不定式

1.I send you 100 dollars today, the rest __ in a year. (2005湖南)

A. follows B. followed

C. to follow D. being followed

2.__________________________ (最后一个人的到来),our party was started.(arrive)

The last guest to arrive

(Ⅴ)名词/代词+介词短语

在这一结构中,如果逻辑主语与介词短语

中的名词都是单数名词,这些名词前习惯

不用冠词。

1.Our teacher came into the classroom,

____________.(手上一本书)

2._______________ the soldier rushed

to the top of the mountain.(肩上一面旗帜)

book in hand

Flag on shoulder

(Ⅵ)有些独立主格结构中没有分词,仅 在名词或代词之后直接跟作表语或状语 的词或词组,省去的分词一般是being 或having been,这是为了简练。但在“being+过去分词”或“there being+过去分词”结构中,being不可省。

1.___________________, he went to school.(早餐结束后)(over)

2.____________________________,she went back to her room. (没有闹钟的原因)

3._________________________, we

can‘t go there. (房间正在被油漆)

Breakfast (being) over

There being no cause for alarm

The room being painted now

二.With和without复合结构

 with和without复合结构是: with/without+名词/代词+分词/不定式/形容词/副词/介词短语。在句子中可以作状语或定语。

(Ⅰ)with/without+名词/代词+现在分词。用现在分词表示主动、正在进行或发生的动作。

I couldn`t finish my work with those children __.

A. playing around B. plays around

C. played around D. to play around

(Ⅱ) with/without 名词/代词+ 过去分词。用过去分词表示被动或已完成的动作。

In the read-room, we found her seated at a desk, with her attention __ on a book.

A. fixing B. fixes

C. fixed D. to fix

(Ⅲ) with/without+名词/代词+不定式。用不定式表示将要发生的动作。

With a lot of difficult problems __, the newly-elected president is having a hard time.

A. settled B. settling

C. to settle D. being settled

(Ⅳ)with/without+名词/代词+形容词。

   She sleeps with the window open.

(Ⅴ) with/without+名词/代词+副词。

__ production up by 60%, the

company has had another excellent year.

A. As B. For C. With D. Through

(Ⅵ) with/without+名词/代词+介词短语。

1.He sleeps with a book in his hand.

2. A girl with a necklace around her

neck got on the bus.

三.with和without复合结构 与独立主格结构的转化

(Ⅰ) with和without复合结构与独立主格结构在句

中作状语时,一般可相互转换;此外还可变为状语从

句或并列句。

(1)作时间状语

With winter coming on, the trees turn yellow

and some birds fly south.

=Winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and

some birds fly south.

= When winter comes on, the trees

turn yellow and some birds fly south.

(2)作原因状语

With the key lost, she could not enter the room.

=The key lost, she could not enter the room.

=As/Because the key had been lost,

she could not enter the room.

(3)作条件状语

With time permitting, we`ll visit the Summer Palace.

=Time permitting, we`ll visit the

Summer Palace.

=If time permits, we`ll visit the

Summer Palace.

(4)作伴随状语

Here are the first three volumes with

the fourth one to come out next month.

=Here are the first three volumes, the fourth one to come out next month.

=Here are the first three volumes and the

fourth one is coming out next month.

(Ⅱ) with和without复合结构可以作     后置定语修饰名词,而独立主格结构则不可作后置定语修饰名词。

Soon she arrived at a park with

grass green and flowers in blossom.

=Soon she arrived at a park whose

grass was green and whose flowers

were in blossom.

1.__ ten minutes __ before the last train

left, we arrived at the station.

A. There were; to go B. With; to go

C. I was; left D. It had; left

2.The lady said she would buy a gift for her daughter with the __.

A.20 dollars remained B.20 dollars to remain

C.remained 20 dollars D. remaining 20 dollars

3.__ the lights off, we could not go on with the

work.

A. Until B. As C. With D. Because

巩固练习

4.It was a pity that the great writer died

__ his work unfinished.

A. for B. with C. from D. of

5.The weather __ so bad, we had to put off the

football match.

A. was B. is C. were D. being

6. __, the runners raced on to the finishing line.

A. Stick in hand B. With a stick in his hand

C. Sticks in hand D. Sticks in hands

7. The boy lay on the ground, his eyes __ and his

hands __.

A. being closed; trembling

B. closed; trembling

C. closed; trembled

D. closing; trembled

8.__,the work can be done much better.

A. Given more time

B. We had been given more time

C. More time given

D. If more time had given

9.Weather __, the sports meet will be held

as scheduled.

A. permits B. will permit

C. to permit D. permitting

10.__ a rainy day, he didn`t go out for a walk

as usual.

A. It was B. It is

C. It being D. Having been

Well done!

非谓语动词是高中语法的重点,也是难点,咱们常常对此感到头疼。其实只要理解并掌握非谓语动词各种形式的特点,做起题来会很轻松。熟悉知道了非谓语动词形式后,做题时可分四步分析。

一、分析句子结构1. ________many times , but he still couldn't understand it .2. ___many times , he still couldn't understand it .

A. Having been told B. Told?

C. He was told D. Though he told3. ________to the left , you'll find the post office .4. If you ________to the left , you'll find the post office .5. ________to the left , and you'll find the post office .

A. Turning B. To turn C. Turn D. Turned

二、分析逻辑主语确定要选非谓语动词之后,第二步要分析其逻辑主语。非谓语动词虽不能作谓语,但仍具有动词特点,其逻辑上的动作执行者就叫做逻辑主语。非谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑主语须和句子的真正主语一致。若不一致,则须加上自己的逻辑主语。1. ________no buses , we have to walk home .

A. There being B. It were

C. There were D. It being?2. ______Sunday I shall have a quiet day at home .

三、分析语态分析语态就是在确定逻辑主语之后,分析非谓语动词和逻辑主语在搭配使用时是主动还是被动关系。1. ______from space , the earth looks blue .2.______from space , we can see the earth is blue .

A. Seen B. Seeing C. To see D.See3. The dirty clothes ______ , the girl hung them up outside .4. _____ the dirty clothes ,the girl hung them up outside .

A. was washed B. washed

C. were washed D. having washed

四、分析时态,在选定了主动或被动后,还要考虑动作发生的时间问题,即时态。1. The building ______now will be a restaurant .2. The building ______next year will be a restaurant .3. The building ______last year is a restaurant.A. having been built B.to be built? C. being built D. built?

看看独立主格结构和其他句式的结合

He had a lot of friends, only a few of _________ invited to his wedding.A. whom?B. them?C. which? D. who【陷阱】容易误选 A,认为这是非限制性定语从句。【分析】最佳答案是B,这不是非限制性定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构,因为空格后的动词 invited 并不是一个完整的谓语,而是一个过去分词。当然,假若在 invited 前加上助动词 were,则是一个非限制性定语从句,答案便应选A

(1) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _________ carried out in their work.A. which?B. them?C. what?D. that(2) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _________ were carried out in their work.A. which?B. them?C. what?D. that(3) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, but none of _________ were carried out in their work.A. which?B. them?C. what?D. that

On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents seated together joking.A. their?B. whose?C. which?D. that【陷阱】容易误选B,认为这是非限制性定语从句。【分析】最佳答案是A。与上面一题相似,their parents seated together joking 不是非限制性定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构,因为空格后的动词 seated 不是谓语,而是一个过去分词,因为 seat 作动词用时,是及物动词。

(1) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, ____ parents were seated together joking.A. their?B. whose?C. which?D. that(2) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, and _________ parents were seated together joking.A. their?B. whose?C. which?D. that(3) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents sitting together joking.A. their?B. whose?C. which?D. that (4) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents sat together joking.A. their?B. whose?C. which?D. that(5) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents were sitting together joking.A. their?B. whose?C. which?D. that

相关资源

外研版选修十一英语目录

Module 1 The Boston Tea Party

Module 2 The Long Walk to Freedom

Module 3 Ernest Hemingway

Module 4 Sherlock Holmes

Module 5 The Last Laugh

Module 6 The United Nations

Module 7 Revision

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